Free Access
Volume 71, Number 5, September-October 2016
Page(s) 259 - 268
Published online 06 July 2016
  1. Mazhar M., Joyce D., Cowin G., Brereton I., Hofman P., Collins R., Gupta M., Non-destructive 1H-MRI assessment of flesh bruising in avocado (Persea americana M.) cv. Hass, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 100 (2015) 33–40. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Bill M., Sivakumar D., Thompson K., Korsten L., Avocado fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain, Food Rev. Int. 30 (2014) 169–202. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Obenland D., Collin S., Sievert J., Negm F., Arpaia, M., Influence of maturity and ripening on aroma volatiles and flavor in ‘Hass’ avocado, Postharvest Biol Technol. 71 (2012) 41–50. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Dreher M., Davenport A., ‘Hass’ avocado composition and potential health effects, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 53 (2013) 738–750. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. Villa-Rodriguez J., Molina-Corral J., Ayala-Zavala F., Olivas G., Gonzalez-Aguilar G., Effect of maturity stage on the content of fatty acids and antioxidant activity of ‘Hass’ avocado, Food Res. Int. 44 (2011) 1231–1237. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Mendez P., Hernandez, G., HDL-C size and composition are modified in the rat by a diet supplementation with ‘Hass’ avocado, Arch. Cardiol. Mexico 77 (2007) 17–24. [Google Scholar]
  7. Rodriguez-Sanchez D., Flores-García M., Silva-Platas C., Rizzo S., Torre-Amione G., De la Pena-Díaz A., Hernández-Brenes C., García-Rivas G., Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities, Food & Function 6 (2015) 193–203. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  8. Bes-Rastrollo M., Van Dam R., Martinez-Gonzalez M., Li T., Sampson L., Hu F., Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88 (2008) 769–777. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. Padmanabhan M., Arumugam G., The modulating effect of Persea americana fruit extract on the level of expression of fatty acid synthase complex, lipoprotein lipase, fibroblast growth factor 21 and leptin – A biochemical study in rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and obesity, Phytomedicine 22 (2015) 939–945. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  10. Hass Avocado Board. A look at who is eating avocados? Information about consumers, drivers and barriers and demographics. 2015 User segmentation analysis. Available at: tracking_study_2015.pdf (Accessed March 30th, 2016). [Google Scholar]
  11. Fruitrop. Close-up avocado, in: Loeillet D & Imbert E. Cirad, Montpellier, France, September 2015, N° 235, pp. 1–96. [Google Scholar]
  12. Blakey R., Bower J., Bertling, I., Influence of water and ABA supply on the ripening pattern of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit and the prediction of water content using near infrared spectroscopy, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 53 (2009) 72–76. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Pedreschi R., Muñoz P., Robledo P., Becerra C., Defilippi B., van Eekelen H., Mumm R., Westra E., de Vos, R., Metabolomics analysis of postharvest ripening heterogeneity of ‘Hass’ avocados, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 92 (2014) 172–179. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  14. Lewis C., The maturity of avocadoes – a general review, J. Sci. Food Agric. 29 (1978) 857–866. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Woolf A., White A., Arpaia M., Gross K., Avocado, in: Gross K., Wang C., Salveit M (Eds.), Agriculture Handbook 66: The storage of fruits, vegetables and florist and nursery stocks, 2004. Available at: (Accessed on November 12, 2015). [Google Scholar]
  16. Robertson B., Fruit growth of Fuerte avocado, Fmg. S. Afr. Subtrop. Fruit Series. 10 (1971) 58. [Google Scholar]
  17. Barmore C., Avocado fruit maturity, in: Sauls J., Phillips R., Jackson L., Eds.). The avocado, Proc. First International Tropical Fruit Short Course 1977, University Press, Gainesville, 1977, pp. 24–33. [Google Scholar]
  18. Van den Dool B., Wolstenholme B., Further studies on avocado fruit growth and maturity in inland Natal, S. Afr. Avocado Growth Assn. 6 (1983) 34–40. [Google Scholar]
  19. Carr M., The water relations and irrigation requirements of avocado (Persea americana Mill.): a review, Expl. Agric. 49 (2013) 256–278. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Abeles, F., Ethylene in plant biology. Academic Press, New York, USA, 1973. [Google Scholar]
  21. Lin S., Walsh C., Studies on the ‘tree factor’ and its role in the maturation and ripening of ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 48 (2008) 99–106. [CrossRef] [MathSciNet] [Google Scholar]
  22. Liu X., Robinson P., Madore M., Witney G., Arpaia M., ‘Hass’ avocado carbohydrate fluctuations II. Fruit growth and ripening, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124 (1999) 676–681. [Google Scholar]
  23. Liu X., Sievert J., Arpaia M.L., Madore M., 2002. Postulated physiological roles of the seven carbon sugars, mannoheptulose and perseitol in avocado, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127 (2002) 108–114. [Google Scholar]
  24. Bertling I., Bower J., Sugars as energy sources – is there a link to avocado fruit quality? South African Avocado Growers’ Ass Yearbook 28 (2005) 24–27. [Google Scholar]
  25. Landahl S., Meyer M., Terry L., Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening, J. Agric. Food Chem. 57 (2009) 7039–7047. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  26. Yousef A., Hassaneine M., Influence of different harvest dates and ripening periods on fruit quality and oil characteristics of ‘Fuerte’ avocadoes, Agric Biol. J. North Am. 1 (2010) 1223–1230. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Seymour G., Tucker G. Avocado, in: Biochemistry of fruit ripening, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, Vol. 1, pp 53–81. [Google Scholar]
  28. Meyer M., Terry L., Development of a rapid method for the sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of fatty acids and sugars from avocado mesocarp tissue, J. Agric. Food Chem. 56 (2008), 7439–7445. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. Luza J., Lizana L., Masson, L., Comparative lipids evolution during cold storage of three avocado cultivars, Acta Hortic. 269 (1990) 153–160. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Ozdemir F., Topuz A., Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening, Food Chem. 86 (2004) 79–83. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Mostert M., Botha B., Du Plessis L., Duodu K., Effect of fruit ripeness and method of fruit drying on the extractability of avocado oil with hexane and supercritical carbon dioxide, J. Sci. Food Agric. 87 (2007) 2880–2885. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Hofman P., Fuch Y., Milne D.,Harvesting, packing, postharvest technology, transport and processing, in: Whiley A., Schaffer B. Wolstenholme B. (Eds), The avocado: botany, production and uses, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, 2002, pp. 363–391. [Google Scholar]
  33. Requejo-Tapia L., International trends in fresh avocado and avocado oil production and seasonal variation of fatty acids in New Zealand grown cv. Hass, Thesis, Massey University, New Zealand, 1999. [Google Scholar]
  34. Blakey, R., Management of avocado postharvest physiology, Thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermartizburg, South Africa, 180 p. [Google Scholar]
  35. Pedreschi R., Hollak S., Harkema H., Otma E., Robledo P., Westra E., Somhorst D., Ferreyra R., Defilippi B., Impact of postharvest ripening strategies on ‘Hass’ avocado fatty acid profiles. South Afri. J. Bot. 103 (2016) 32–35. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  36. Donetti M., Terry L., Biochemical markers defining growing area and ripening storage of imported avocado fruit cv. Hass, J. Food Com. Anal. 34 (2014) 90–98. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  37. Giovannoni J., Molecular biology of fruit maturation and ripening, Annu. Rev. Plant. Physiol. Plant. Mol. Biol. 52 (2001) 725–749. [Google Scholar]
  38. Awad M., Young R., Postharvest variation in cellulase, polygalacturonase, and pectinmethylesterase in avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv. Fuerte) fruits in relation to respiration and ethylene production, Plant Physiol. 64 (1974) 306–308. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  39. Cutting J., Bower, J., Wolstenholme, B., Stress, delayed harvest and fruit quality in Fuerte avocado fruit, South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 9 (1986) 39–42. [Google Scholar]
  40. Lieberman M., Baker J., Sloger M., Influence of plant hormones on ethylene production in apple, tomato, and avocado slices during maturation and senescence, Plant Physiol. 60 (1977) 214–217. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  41. Tingwa P., Young R., The effect of IAA and other growth regulators on the ripening of avocado fruits. Plant Physiol. (1975) 55, 937–940. [Google Scholar]
  42. van Rooyen, Z., Factors affecting mesocarp discoloration severity in ’Pinkerton’ avocados, Horticultural Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  43. Pesis E., Fuchs Y., Zauberman G., Cellulase activity and fruit softening in avocado, Plant Physiol. 61 (1978) 416–419. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  44. Tateishi A., Shiba H., Ogihara J., Isobe K., Nomura K., Watanabe K., Inoue H., Differential expression and ethylene regulation of β-galactosidase genes and isozymes isolated from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 45 (2007) 56–65. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  45. Bower J., Cutting, J., Avocado fruit development and ripening physiology, in: Janick J. (Ed.) Horticultural reviews, Timber Press, Portland, OR, USA, 1988, Vol. 10, pp. 229–271. [Google Scholar]
  46. Ferreyra R., Defilippi B., Sellés G., Arpaia M., Factores que afectan la postcosecha de la palta, in: Ferreyra R., Defilippi B. (Eds.), Factores de pre-cosecha que afectan la post-cosecha de palta ‘Hass’, Clima, suelo y manejo, Boletín UNIA 248, 2012, pp. 1–102. [Google Scholar]
  47. Adato I., Gazit S., Water-deficit stress, ethylene production and ripening in avocado fruits, Plant Physiol. 53 (1974) 45–46. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  48. Whiley A., Chapman K., Saranah J., Water loss by floral structures of avocados (Persea americana cv. Fuerte) during flowering, J. Agric. Res. 30 (1988) 457–467. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  49. Martens D., Luck, S., Frankenberger W., Role of plant growth regulators in vegetative spring flush, flowering and fruit drop in avocado (Persea americana Mill). California Avocado Society Inc, Circular CAS 94/1, 1994. Available at: [Google Scholar]
  50. Salazar-García S., L.C Garner, C.J. Lovatt., Biología reproductiva, in: Shaffer B., Wolstenholme B., Whiley A.W. (Eds)., El aguacate Botánica, producción y usos, Ediciones Universitarias de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile, 2013, pp. 151–206. [Google Scholar]
  51. Blakey R., Tesfay S., Bertling I.Bower J., Changes in sugars, total protein and oil in ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit during ripening, J. Hort Sci. Biotechnol. 87 (2012) 381–397. [Google Scholar]
  52. Adato I., Gazit S., Blumenfeld A., Relationship between changes in abscisic acid and ethylene production during ripening of avocado fruits, Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 3 (1976) 555–558. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  53. Frenkel C., Dyck R., Auxin inhibition of ripening in Barlett pears, Plant Physiol. 51 (1973) 6–9. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  54. Tingwa, P., Young, R., The effect of indole-3-acetic acid and other growth regulators on the ripening of avocado fruits, Plant Physiol. 55 (1975) 937–940. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  55. Hershkovitz V., Friedman H., Goldschmidt E., Pesis E., Ethylene regulation of avocado ripening differs between seeded and seedless fruit, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 56 (2010) 138–146. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  56. Woolf A., Wexler A., Prusky D., Kobiler E., Lurie S., Direct sunlight influences postharvest temperature responses and ripening of five avocado cultivars, J. Am. Soc. Hort Sci. 125 (2000) 370–376. [Google Scholar]
  57. Hershkovitz V., Friedman H., Goldschmidt E., Feygenberg O., Pesis, E., Induction of ethylene in avocado fruit in response to chilling stress on tree, J. Plant Physiol. 166 (2009) 1855–1862. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  58. Bower, J., Van Rooyen Z., Bertling I., Blakey R., Variable ripening of fruit in avocado consignments, in: VI World Avocado Congress, Viña del Mar, Chile, 2007. [Google Scholar]
  59. Bower J., Some aspects of water relations on avocado (Persea americana Mill) tree and fruit physiology, Thesis, Department of Horticultural Science, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 1985. [Google Scholar]
  60. Bower J., Cutting J., Van Lelyveld L., Long term irrigation as influencing avocado abscisic acid content and fruit quality, South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 9 (1986) 43–45. [Google Scholar]
  61. Kruger F., Magwaza L., Does orchard soil moisture content at the time of harvest influence the post-storage ripening pattern of ‘Hass’ avocado fruit? South African Avocado Growers Association, Yearrbook 35 (2012), 47–53. [Google Scholar]
  62. Ferguson I., Richard V., Woolf, A., Preharvest factors affecting physiological disorders of fruit, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15 (1999) 255–262. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  63. Arpaia M., Las prácticas culturales influyen sobre la calidad de la fruta en post cosecha., in: Arpaia, M., Van Rooyen, Z., Bower J. P., Hofman, P. J. and Woolf, A.B., 2® Seminario Internacional de Paltos, Quillota, Chile, 2004, pp. 1–10. [Google Scholar]
  64. Ruiz R., Ferreyra, R., Requerimiento nutricional y efecto de la nutrición sobre desórdenes y condición de paltas, in: Seminario Internacional: Riego, nutrición y portainjertos en la calidad y condición de la palta ‘Hass’, Quillota, Chile, INIA-Innova Chile Corfo, Quillota, Chile, p. 88. [Google Scholar]
  65. Snijder B., Penter M., Mathumbu J., Kruger, K., Further refinement of ‘Pinkerton’ export parameters. South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 25 (2002) 50–53. [Google Scholar]
  66. Smith T., Asher C., Stepheson R., Hetherington S., Boron deficiency of avocados 2. Effects on fruit size and ripening., in: Bell R. & Rerkasem B. (Eds), Boron in soils and plants, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997, pp. 131–137. [Google Scholar]
  67. Bonilla I., Introducción a la nutrición mineral de plantas: los elementos minerales, in: Azcón J & Talon M (Eds.), Fundamentos de fisiología vegetal, Mc. Graw Hill, Madrid, Spain, 2000, pp. 83–97. [Google Scholar]
  68. Lovatt C., Salazar-García S., Plant growth regulators for avocado production, Proceedings 33rd PGRSA Annual Meeting (2006), pp. 98–107. [Google Scholar]
  69. Mena F., Gardiazábal C., Magdahl C., Whiley A., Cantuarias T., Wilhelmy F., Gonzalez F., Efecto del Unicoriazol-P (Sunny®) sobre el crecimiento y productividad de paltos cv. Hass en Chile. Proceedings V World Avocado Congress, Malaga, Spain, 2003, pp. 267-272. [Google Scholar]
  70. Blakey R., Tesfay S., Bertling I., Bower J., Ripening physiology and quality of ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea Americana Mill) after cold storage at 1 °C, J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 89 (2014), 655–662. [Google Scholar]
  71. Woolf A., Requejo-Tapia C., Cox K., Jackman R., Gunson A., Arpaia M., White A., 1-MCP reduced physiological storage disorders of ‘Hass’ avocados, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 35 (2005), 43–60. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  72. Woolf A., White A., Arpaia M., Gross K. 2014., Avocado., in: Gross, K., Wang, C and Saltveit, M (Eds.). The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks, Agriculture Handbook Number 66, USDA/ARS, Beltsville, MD, USA, 2014, p.9. [Google Scholar]
  73. Defilippi B., Robledo P., Rivera S., Ferreyra R., Heterogeneidad de la calidad y condición de paltas., in: Defilippi B., Ferreyra R. & Rivera S., Optimización de la calidad de palta ‘Hass’, Boletín INIA 307, 2015, pp. 43–68. [Google Scholar]
  74. Blakey R., Bower J., Bertling I., Post-harvest avocado physiology, South Afr. Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 33 (2010) 56–60. [Google Scholar]
  75. Burdon J., Lallu N., Haynes G., Mcdermott K., Billing D., The effect of delays in establishment of a static or dynamic controlled atmosphere on the quality of ‘Hass’ avocado fruit, Postharvest Biol. Technol. 49 (2008) 61–68. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  76. Blakey R., Bower J., The feasibility of a hot water treatment for South African avocados (Persea americana [Mill] cv. Hass), South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 30 (2007), 66-68. [Google Scholar]
  77. Wedding B., White R., Grauf S., Wright C., Tilse B., Hofman P., Gadek P., Non- destructive prediction of ‘Hass’ avocado dry matter via FT-NIR spectroscopy, J. Sci Food Agric. 91 (2011) 233–238. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  78. Reeksting B., Coetzer N., Mahomed W., Engelbrecht J., van den Berg N., De novo sequecing, assembly and analysis of the root transcriptome of Persea americana (Mill.) in response to Phytophtora cinnamomi and flooding, PLoS One 9 (2014) e86399. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  79. Ibarra-Laclette E., Méndez-Bravo A., Pérez-Torres C., Albert V., Mockaitis K., Kilaru A., López-Gómez R., Cervantes-Luevano J., Herrera-Estrella L., Deep sequencing of the Mexican avocado transcriptome, an ancient angiosperm with high content of fatty acids, BMC Genomics 16 (2015) 599. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  80. Kilaru A., Cao X., Dabbs P., Sung H., Rahman M., Thrower N., Zynda G., Podicheti R., Ibarra-Laclette E., Herrera-Estrella L., Mockaitis K., Ohlrogge J., Oil biosynthesis in a basal angiosperm: transcriptome analysis of Persea americana mesocarp, BMC Plant Biol. 15 (2015) 203. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  81. Kanellis A., Solomos T., Mattoo A., Hydrolytic enzyme activities and protein pattern of avocado fruit ripened in air and low oxygen with and without ethylene, Plant Physiol. 90 (1989) 259–266. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]